Written by-Satendra Kumar Maurya student of Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow.
regulation in the fertilizer and herbicide manufacturing to prevent Leaching of toxic chemical. Can a liability be imposed, if yes on who?
WHAT IS FERTILIZER: –
A fertilizer is a chemical or organic product which improve the quality of fertility of the soil after applying it into the soil. As the name suggests, organic fertilizers come from organic sources such animal manure and plants and chemical fertilizers are made in chemical process in the factory. Plant require essential nutrients to grow properly. There are 17 most important fertilizer which is must for every soil. Fertilizer help plant growth and replenishes after each harvest. Nitrogen, phosphate, potassium and sulphur are the most important nutrients for crops growth and sustainable food production –
Nitrogen: – for manufacturing nitrogen fertiliser, it must be removed from the air and combined with hydrogen to form ammonia (NH3), which is after converted to urea. Urea is very important nitrogenous fertiliser in the country because it includes about 46% nitrogen. This is applied directly to crops as a building block to make other nitrogen fertiliser products.
Potassium: – it is found throughout nature and it is also found in our bodies in muscles, skin and the digestive tract. For good health body requires sufficient intake of potassium. Plants use potassium for the properly functions like photosynthesis and protein formation. Potassium is mined from naturally occurring ore bodies that were formed as seawater evaporated. The deposits are a mixture of crystals of potassium chloride and sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is also known as table salt. After it is mined, the potassium chloride is purified into a granular fertiliser.
Phosphorus: – it is present in all living cells and It is essential to all forms of life. Found throughout our bodies, it is concentrated in our bones and teeth. The main source of phosphorus in fertilizers is phosphate rock which is typically mined from the earth’s crust then reacted with different types of acids to produce different phosphate products.
WHY FERTILIZERS? –
Fertilizer is very crucial for growth of plant because provides all kinds of nutrients which needs in growth of plant. Fertilizers is also help in enhancing the effectiveness of the soil by modifying its water retention and aeration. For
examples Nitrogen is a very important nutrients to plant which help in leaf growth, phosphorus is also very crucial for plant which help in development of roots flower seeds and fruits and potassium help in strong stem growth, movement in plant and promotion of flowering and fruits. The nutrients required for healthy plant life are classified according to the elements, but the elements are not used as fertilizers. Instead compounds containing these elements are the basis of fertilizers.
Each and every nutrient in our food come from the soil. In order to create healthy crops full of nutrients, we need to work with healthy soil. Soil naturally contain many nutrients but these are in low amount to increase the nutrition in soil we must regularly give fertilizers. Most fertilizers that are used in agriculture contain the three basic nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Some fertilizers also contain certain micronutrients, such as zinc and other nutrients that are essentials for plant growth.
REGULATION OF FERTILIZERS: –
At the current time, there are thirty urea units in the country out of which twenty-seven urea units are use Natural Gases (using either domestic gas/LNG or both) and remaining three urea units are use naphtha as feedstock. The price of urea is statutorily fixed by the Government of India. The difference between the price of the delivered cost of fertilizers at farm and the price payable by the farmer is given as subsidy to the fertilizer manufacturer by the Government of India.
HERBICIDE MANUFACTURING TO PREVENT LEACHING OF TOXIC CHEMICAL: –
When herbicide is used to control weed, sometimes a lot of compounds end up in environments whether it is soil, water or in the product harvested. Because of the widespread use of these chemical there have been accumulation of these residues causing alarming contaminations in the ecosystems and negative damages to the lives. Herbicides affect the environment in many ways. There is need of explore the knowledge about the toxicity of herbicide and educate them to use herbicide as less as possible because this the only way to stop the toxicity of herbicide. When herbicides are applied in agricultural soil they can have
different direction since being degraded by microorganism or by non – microorganism or even transported by water at different places and it kill a lot of organism in the soil.
One way is by doing precisely what it is supposed to do which is help in plants growth. The problem is that it creates what experts call a dead zone. When it is mixed in the water then it encourages the growth of plankton and other aquatic plants in excessive amounts. When they die the process of decomposition eats up oxygen that fish and other aquatic animals need to survive. As a result, the waters closest to the land where agricultural runoff is also heaviest are empty of fish and crustaceans. Also if we use these chemical in soil it increase the toxicity in the foods also which increase many types of decease in human.
At the current time we are using a lot of chemical fertilizers for increase the production of the crops. Food crops produced using these chemical fertilizers may not be as nutritious as they should be. So that we should use chemical fertilizers as least as possible because highest using of chemical product also increase many kinds of decease in human body. To prevent these toxic chemical fertilizers use, government should make law so that farmer use least of these chemical. We also need to educate them the toxicity of these chemical.